Displaying bHLH Family from Maize


INFORMATION ABOUT bHLH FAMILY

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that bind as dimers to specific DNA target sites and that have been wellcharacterized in nonplant eukaryotes as important regulatory components in diverse biological processes. Based on evidence that the bHLH protein PIF3 is a direct phytochrome reaction partner in the photoreceptor signaling network we have undertaken a comprehensive computational analysis of the Arabidopsis genome sequence databases to define the scope and features of the bHLH family. Using a set of criteria derived from a previously defined consensus motif we identified 147 bHLH protein-encoding genes making this one of the largest transcription factor families in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis of the bHLH domain sequences permits classification of these genes into 21 subfamilies. The evolutionary and potential functional relationships implied by this analysis are supported by other criteria including the chromosomal distribution of these genes relative to duplicated genome segments the conservation of variant exon/intron structural patterns and the predicted DNA binding activities within subfamilies. Considerable diversity in DNA binding site specificity among family members is predicted and marked divergence in protein sequence outside of the conserved bHLH domain is observed. Together with the established propensity of bHLH factors to engage in varying degrees of homodimerization and heterodimerization these observations suggest that the Arabidopsis bHLH proteins have the potential to participate in an extensive set of combinatorial interactions endowing them with the capacity to be involved in the regulation of a multiplicity of transcriptional programs. We provide evidence from yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays that two related phytochrome-interacting members in the Arabidopsis family PIF3 and PIF4 can form both homodimers and heterodimers and that all three dimeric configurations can bind specifically to the G-box DNA sequence motif CACGTG. These data are consistent in principle with the operation of this combinatorial mechanism in Arabidopsis.


Protein Name
accepted / suggested
Gene Locus Synonym/
Gene Name
Clone in TFome Genome Browser
ZmbHLH1 GRMZM5G822829 R1 pUT3027 View in Browser
ZmbHLH2 GRMZM2G172795 B1 pUT4953 View in Browser
ZmbHLH3 GRMZM2G180452 BHLH3 pUT2278 View in Browser
ZmbHLH4 AC177924.2_FG001 BHLH4 View in Browser
ZmbHLH5 GRMZM2G116785 BHLH5 pUT1155 View in Browser
ZmbHLH6 GRMZM2G417597 BHLH6 View in Browser
ZmbHLH7 GRMZM2G042920 BHLH7 pUT3413 View in Browser
ZmbHLH8 GRMZM2G038479 BHLH8 pUT6560 View in Browser
ZmbHLH9 GRMZM2G407119 BHLH9 View in Browser
ZmbHLH10 GRMZM2G067654 BHLH10 pUT4697 View in Browser
ZmbHLH11 GRMZM2G176289 BHLH11 pUT6041 View in Browser
ZmbHLH12 GRMZM2G316758 BHLH12 View in Browser
ZmbHLH13 GRMZM2G091003 BHLH13 pUT4694 View in Browser
ZmbHLH14 GRMZM5G817854 BHLH14 pUT4955 View in Browser
ZmbHLH15 GRMZM2G057260 BHLH15 View in Browser
ZmbHLH16 GRMZM2G021276 MS23 pUT5630 View in Browser
ZmbHLH17 GRMZM2G137358 BHLH17 pUT5689 View in Browser
ZmbHLH18 GRMZM2G082343 BHLH18 View in Browser
ZmbHLH19 GRMZM2G066057 BHLH19 View in Browser
ZmbHLH20 GRMZM2G414252 BHLH20 pUT3428 View in Browser
ZmbHLH21 AC233899.1_FG002 BHLH21 View in Browser
ZmbHLH22 GRMZM2G162450 BHLH22 pUT5691 View in Browser
ZmbHLH23 GRMZM2G178182 BHLH23 pUT3405 View in Browser
ZmbHLH24 GRMZM2G085751 BHLH24 pUT3406 View in Browser
ZmbHLH25 GRMZM2G081816 BHLH25 pUT3398 View in Browser
ZmbHLH26 GRMZM2G018472 BHLH26 pUT4954 View in Browser
ZmbHLH27 GRMZM2G092091 BHLH27 pUT3400 View in Browser
ZmbHLH28 GRMZM2G155043 BHLH28 View in Browser
ZmbHLH29 GRMZM2G101350 BHLH29 pUT3402 View in Browser
ZmbHLH30 GRMZM2G036092 BHLH30 pUT2282 View in Browser
ZmbHLH31 GRMZM2G435015 BHLH31 View in Browser
ZmbHLH32 GRMZM2G180406 BHLH32 View in Browser
ZmbHLH33 GRMZM2G015666 BHLH33 pUT6109 View in Browser
ZmbHLH34 GRMZM2G045109 BHLH34 View in Browser
ZmbHLH35 GRMZM2G173372 BHLH35 pUT3688 View in Browser
ZmbHLH36 GRMZM2G008691 BHLH36 pUT2274 View in Browser
ZmbHLH37 GRMZM2G107672 BHLH37 pUT4952 View in Browser
ZmbHLH38 GRMZM2G165188 BHLH38 View in Browser
ZmbHLH39 GRMZM2G162382 BHLH39 pUT6791 View in Browser
ZmbHLH40 GRMZM2G526668 BHLH40 pUT6412 View in Browser
ZmbHLH41 GRMZM2G171818 BHLH41 pUT4689 View in Browser
ZmbHLH42 GRMZM2G107276 BHLH42 View in Browser
ZmbHLH43 GRMZM2G165042 BHLH43 pUT4131 View in Browser
ZmbHLH44 GRMZM2G175480 BHLH44 pUT4146 View in Browser
ZmbHLH45 GRMZM2G481280 BHLH45 pUT4251 View in Browser
ZmbHLH46 GRMZM2G148723 BHLH46 View in Browser
ZmbHLH47 GRMZM2G065374 BHLH47 View in Browser
ZmbHLH48 GRMZM2G027068 BHLH48 pUT6079 View in Browser
ZmbHLH49 GRMZM2G137374 BHLH49 pUT4110 View in Browser
ZmbHLH50 GRMZM2G137380 BHLH50 View in Browser
ZmbHLH51 GRMZM2G139372 BHLH51 View in Browser
ZmbHLH52 GRMZM5G812883 BHLH52 pUT5203 View in Browser
ZmbHLH53 GRMZM2G111146 BHLH53 pUT3432 View in Browser
ZmbHLH54 AC193786.3_FG005 BHLH54 View in Browser
ZmbHLH55 GRMZM2G030762 BHLH55 pUT3399 View in Browser
ZmbHLH56 GRMZM2G072376 BHLH56 pUT3427 View in Browser
ZmbHLH57 GRMZM2G159937 BHLH57 pUT5637 View in Browser
ZmbHLH58 AC198518.3_FG005 BHLH58 View in Browser
ZmbHLH59 GRMZM2G303463 BHLH59 View in Browser
ZmbHLH60 GRMZM2G016756 BHLH60 View in Browser
ZmbHLH61 GRMZM5G818776 BHLH61 pUT5201 View in Browser
ZmbHLH62 GRMZM2G333582 BHLH62 pUT4176 View in Browser
ZmbHLH63 GRMZM2G166642 BHLH63 pUT6834 View in Browser
ZmbHLH64 GRMZM2G175955 BHLH64 View in Browser
ZmbHLH65 GRMZM2G387528 PIF3 pUT3657 View in Browser
ZmbHLH66 GRMZM2G163233 MS32 pUT2277 View in Browser
ZmbHLH67 GRMZM2G397518 BA1 pUT3430 View in Browser
ZmbHLH68 GRMZM2G115960 BHLH68 pUT6082 View in Browser
ZmbHLH69 GRMZM2G378653 BHLH69 View in Browser
ZmbHLH70 GRMZM2G397755 BHLH70 View in Browser
ZmbHLH71 GRMZM2G120021 BHLH71 pUT2107 View in Browser
ZmbHLH72 GRMZM2G170559 BHLH72 pUT4140 View in Browser
ZmbHLH73 GRMZM2G008898 BHLH73 pUT5686 View in Browser
ZmbHLH74 GRMZM2G035156 BHLH74 pUT6244 View in Browser
ZmbHLH75 GRMZM2G395549 BHLH75 View in Browser
ZmbHLH76 GRMZM2G112629 BHLH76 pUT3409 View in Browser
ZmbHLH77 GRMZM2G463133 BHLH77 View in Browser
ZmbHLH78 GRMZM2G049686 BHLH78 View in Browser
ZmbHLH79 GRMZM2G173862 BHLH79 pUT6169 View in Browser
ZmbHLH80 GRMZM2G142932 BHLH80 pUT6738 View in Browser
ZmbHLH81 GRMZM5G828396 BHLH81 pUT3438 View in Browser
ZmbHLH82 GRMZM2G417164 BHLH82 pUT3670 View in Browser
ZmbHLH83 GRMZM2G169947 BHLH83 pUT5692 View in Browser
ZmbHLH84 GRMZM2G159456 BHLH84 pUT3435 View in Browser
ZmbHLH85 GRMZM2G354618 BHLH85 pUT3671 View in Browser
ZmbHLH86 GRMZM5G818643 BHLH86 pUT2275 View in Browser
ZmbHLH87 GRMZM2G027563 BHLH87 View in Browser
ZmbHLH88 GRMZM2G350165 BHLH88 pUT6033 View in Browser
ZmbHLH89 AC216731.3_FG001 BHLH89 View in Browser
ZmbHLH90 GRMZM2G153454 BHLH90 pUT5690 View in Browser
ZmbHLH91 GRMZM2G049229 BHLH91 View in Browser
ZmbHLH92 GRMZM2G164341 BHLH92 pUT4691 View in Browser
ZmbHLH93 GRMZM5G899865 BHLH93 View in Browser
ZmbHLH94 GRMZM5G849600 BHLH94 pUT6154 View in Browser
ZmbHLH95 GRMZM2G107560 BHLH95 pUT3672 View in Browser
ZmbHLH96 GRMZM2G172297 BHLH96 View in Browser
ZmbHLH97 AC149829.2_FG004 BHLH97 pUT6228 View in Browser
ZmbHLH98 GRMZM2G340177 BHLH98 View in Browser
ZmbHLH99 GRMZM2G076636 BHLH99 pUT4693 View in Browser
ZmbHLH100 GRMZM2G313756 BHLH100 pUT3673 View in Browser
ZmbHLH101 GRMZM2G173521 BHLH101 pUT4695 View in Browser
ZmbHLH102 GRMZM2G355469 BHLH102 View in Browser
ZmbHLH103 GRMZM2G301089 BHLH103 pUT2279 View in Browser
ZmbHLH104 GRMZM2G088443 BHLH104 pUT3410 View in Browser
ZmbHLH105 GRMZM2G082586 BHLH105 pUT6179 View in Browser
ZmbHLH106 GRMZM2G089501 BHLH106 pUT3423 View in Browser
ZmbHLH107 GRMZM2G145146 BHLH107 pUT4690 View in Browser
ZmbHLH108 GRMZM2G119823 BHLH108 pUT6163 View in Browser
ZmbHLH109 GRMZM2G013688 BHLH109 pUT3993 View in Browser
ZmbHLH110 GRMZM2G452996 BHLH110 View in Browser
ZmbHLH111 GRMZM2G150327 BHLH111 pUT4696 View in Browser
ZmbHLH112 GRMZM5G879527 BHLH112 View in Browser
ZmbHLH113 GRMZM2G471635 BHLH113 pUT3674 View in Browser
ZmbHLH114 GRMZM2G095899 BHLH114 pUT3690 View in Browser
ZmbHLH115 GRMZM2G068604 BHLH115 pUT3424 View in Browser
ZmbHLH116 GRMZM2G042895 BHLH116 pUT6080 View in Browser
ZmbHLH117 GRMZM2G062541 BHLH117 View in Browser
ZmbHLH118 GRMZM2G061906 BHLH118 pUT3433 View in Browser
ZmbHLH119 GRMZM5G863198 BHLH119 View in Browser
ZmbHLH120 GRMZM2G109605 BHLH120 pUT6273 View in Browser
ZmbHLH121 GRMZM2G083504 BHLH121 View in Browser
ZmbHLH122 AC233960.1_FG005 BHLH122 View in Browser
ZmbHLH123 GRMZM2G369629 BHLH123 pUT3412 View in Browser
ZmbHLH124 GRMZM2G132550 BHLH124 View in Browser
ZmbHLH125 GRMZM2G017349 BHLH125 pUT3401 View in Browser
ZmbHLH126 GRMZM2G057413 BHLH126 pUT6138 View in Browser
ZmbHLH127 GRMZM2G128807 BHLH127 View in Browser
ZmbHLH128 GRMZM2G314882 BHLH128 pUT6139 View in Browser
ZmbHLH129 GRMZM5G856837 BHLH129 pUT3411 View in Browser
ZmbHLH130 GRMZM2G033356 BHLH130 View in Browser
ZmbHLH131 GRMZM2G171464 BHLH131 pUT6040 View in Browser
ZmbHLH132 GRMZM2G114873 BHLH132 pUT6770 View in Browser
ZmbHLH133 GRMZM2G437481 BHLH133 View in Browser
ZmbHLH134 GRMZM2G086474 BHLH134 pUT5889 View in Browser
ZmbHLH135 GRMZM2G134735 BHLH135 pUT3962 View in Browser
ZmbHLH136 GRMZM2G144275 BHLH136 pUT3425 View in Browser
ZmbHLH137 GRMZM2G019806 BHLH137 pUT3404 View in Browser
ZmbHLH138 GRMZM2G176141 BHLH138 View in Browser
ZmbHLH139 GRMZM2G064638 BHLH139 pUT3408 View in Browser
ZmbHLH140 GRMZM2G475289 BHLH140 View in Browser
ZmbHLH141 GRMZM2G080168 BHLH141 pUT3407 View in Browser
ZmbHLH142 GRMZM2G074438 BHLH142 View in Browser
ZmbHLH143 GRMZM2G043854 BHLH143 View in Browser
ZmbHLH144 GRMZM2G042893 BHLH144 pUT2271 View in Browser
ZmbHLH145 GRMZM2G472671 BHLH145 pUT2108 View in Browser
ZmbHLH146 GRMZM2G085467 BHLH146 View in Browser
ZmbHLH147 GRMZM2G383841 BHLH147 pUT5202 View in Browser
ZmbHLH148 GRMZM2G080054 BHLH148 pUT5688 View in Browser
ZmbHLH149 GRMZM2G001930 MYC7 View in Browser
ZmbHLH150 GRMZM2G045431 BHLH150 pUT3675 View in Browser
ZmbHLH151 GRMZM2G137541 BHLH151 pUT3437 View in Browser
ZmbHLH152 GRMZM5G839518 BHLH152 View in Browser
ZmbHLH153 GRMZM2G036554 BHLH153 View in Browser
ZmbHLH154 GRMZM2G385543 BHLH154 pUT6140 View in Browser
ZmbHLH155 GRMZM2G042101 BHLH155 View in Browser
ZmbHLH156 GRMZM2G317450 BHLH156 View in Browser
ZmbHLH157 GRMZM2G009478 BHLH157 pUT5687 View in Browser
ZmbHLH158 GRMZM2G165090 BHLH158 pUT4134 View in Browser
ZmbHLH159 GRMZM2G004356 BHLH159 pUT4692 View in Browser
ZmbHLH160 GRMZM2G006631 BHLH160 View in Browser
ZmbHLH161 GRMZM2G045883 BHLH161 pUT3414 View in Browser
ZmbHLH162 GRMZM2G093744 BHLH162 View in Browser
ZmbHLH163 GRMZM5G865967 BHLH163 View in Browser
ZmbHLH164 GRMZM2G058451 BHLH164 View in Browser
ZmbHLH165 GRMZM2G145579 BHLH165 pUT3426 View in Browser
ZmbHLH166 GRMZM2G114444 BHLH166 pUT1801 View in Browser
ZmbHLH167 GRMZM2G147685 BHLH167 View in Browser
ZmbHLH168 GRMZM2G030744 BHLH168 pUT3689 View in Browser
ZmbHLH169 GRMZM2G113257 BHLH169 pUT6081 View in Browser
ZmbHLH170 GRMZM2G082630 BHLH170 pUT4698 View in Browser
ZmbHLH171 GRMZM2G024530 BHLH171 pUT5629 View in Browser
ZmbHLH172 GRMZM2G017586 BHLH172 pUT2284 View in Browser
ZmbHLH173 GRMZM5G882527 BHLH173 pUT3403 View in Browser
ZmbHLH174 GRMZM2G016039 BHLH174 pUT6733 View in Browser
ZmbHLH175 GRMZM2G173534 BHLH175 pUT5693 View in Browser